本文来自i春秋作者: penguin_wwy

零、问题出现

对dex文件进行加密,解密后动态加载是一种常用的加壳方式(一代壳以这种方式为主)。但这种在解密之后往往会产生一个解密后的完整dex。过程一般是这样的 打开文件

File file = new File("classes.dex");

读取字节码

byte[] buffer = new FileInputStream(file).read();

解密字节码

decrypt(buffer)

重写到文件

File newFile = new File("classes_decrypt.dex"); new FileOutputStream(newFile).write(buffer);

加载dex

DexClassLoader dexClassLoader = new DexClassLoader("classes_decrypt.dex"...);

可见在重写到文件这一步,就有可能被截获到解密后的dex,那加密dex的意义就完全不存在了。 当然也有过许多办法,比如加载完后删除文件、或者隐藏文件等等,但都没法从根本上解决问题。而最有实际意义的方法就是今天要说的,不落地加载dex。

一、理论基础

不落地的含义就是说在解密后直接由字节码进行加载,不需要变成dex文件。Dalvik中的两种类加载器DexClassLoader和PathClassLoader显然都不具备这个能力。我们需要自己定义一个类加载器。 那如何自己定义呢?我们先分析一下DexClassLoader加载的过程(详细分析请看我的博客)。这里简单说明一下,首先是DexClassLoader的构造函数 源码位置 libcore\dalvik\src\main\java\dalvik\system\DexClassLoader.java

public class DexClassLoader extends BaseDexClassLoader {  
/**
* Creates a {[url=home.php?mod=space&uid=74926]@Code[/url] DexClassLoader} that finds interpreted and native
* code. Interpreted classes are found in a set of DEX files contained
* in Jar or APK files.
*
* <p>The path lists are separated using the character specified by the
* {@code path.separator} system property, which defaults to {@code :}.
*
* @param dexPath the list of jar/apk files containing classes and
* resources, delimited by {@code File.pathSeparator}, which
* defaults to {@code ":"} on Android
* @param optimizedDirectory directory where optimized dex files
* should be written; must not be {@code null}
* @param libraryPath the list of directories containing native
* libraries, delimited by {@code File.pathSeparator}; may be
* {@code null}
* @param parent the parent class loader
*/
public DexClassLoader(String dexPath, String optimizedDirectory,  
String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent) {  
super(dexPath, new File(optimizedDirectory), libraryPath, parent);  
}
}

实质上是对它的父类,BaseDexClassLoader的构造 源码位置 libcore\dalvik\src\main\java\dalvik\system\BaseDexClassLoader.java

public BaseDexClassLoader(String dexPath, File optimizedDirectory,  
String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent) {  
super(parent);  
this.pathList = new DexPathList(this, dexPath, libraryPath, optimizedDirectory);  
}

libcore\dalvik\src\main\java\dalvik\system\DexPathList.java

public DexPathList(ClassLoader definingContext, String dexPath,  
String libraryPath, File optimizedDirectory) {  
if (definingContext == null) {  
throw new NullPointerException("definingContext == null");  
}
 
if (dexPath == null) {  
throw new NullPointerException("dexPath == null");  
}
 
if (optimizedDirectory != null) {  
if (!optimizedDirectory.exists()) {  
throw new IllegalArgumentException(  
"optimizedDirectory doesn't exist: "
+ optimizedDirectory);
}
 
if (!(optimizedDirectory.canRead()  
&& optimizedDirectory.canWrite())) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException(  
"optimizedDirectory not readable/writable: "
+ optimizedDirectory);
}
}
 
this.definingContext = definingContext;  
this.dexElements = makeDexElements(splitDexPath(dexPath), optimizedDirectory);  
this.nativeLibraryDirectories = splitLibraryPath(libraryPath);  
}

重点在函数makeDexElements

private static Element[] makeDexElements(ArrayList<File> files,  
File optimizedDirectory) {  
ArrayList<Element> elements = new ArrayList<Element>();  
 
/*
* Open all files and load the (direct or contained) dex files
* up front.
*/
for (File file : files) {  
File zip = null;  
DexFile dex = null;  
String name = file.getName();  
 
if (name.endsWith(DEX_SUFFIX)) {  
// Raw dex file (not inside a zip/jar).
try {  
dex = loadDexFile(file, optimizedDirectory);  
} catch (IOException ex) {
System.logE("Unable to load dex file: " + file, ex);  
}
} else if (name.endsWith(APK_SUFFIX) || name.endsWith(JAR_SUFFIX)
|| name.endsWith(ZIP_SUFFIX)) {
zip = file;  
 
try {  
dex = loadDexFile(file, optimizedDirectory);  
} catch (IOException ignored) {
/*
* IOException might get thrown "legitimately" by
* the DexFile constructor if the zip file turns
* out to be resource-only (that is, no
* classes.dex file in it). Safe to just ignore
* the exception here, and let dex == null.
*/
}
} else if (file.isDirectory()) {
// We support directories for looking up resources.
// This is only useful for running libcore tests.
elements.add(new Element(file, true, null, null));  
} else {
System.logW("Unknown file type for: " + file);  
}
 
if ((zip != null) || (dex != null)) {  
elements.add(new Element(file, false, zip, dex));  
}
}
 
return elements.toArray(new Element[elements.size()]);  
}

根据文件后缀名的判断选择分支,然后调用loadDex函数

private static DexFile loadDexFile(File file, File optimizedDirectory)  
throws IOException {  
if (optimizedDirectory == null) {  
return new DexFile(file);  
} else {
String optimizedPath = optimizedPathFor(file, optimizedDirectory);  
return DexFile.loadDex(file.getPath(), optimizedPath, 0);  
}
}

DexFile.loadDex这个函数的内部也只是构造一个DexFile对象,所以直接看DexFile的构造函数就好

private DexFile(String sourceName, String outputName, int flags) throws IOException {  
if (outputName != null) {  
try {  
String parent = new File(outputName).getParent();  
if (Libcore.os.getuid() != Libcore.os.stat(parent).st_uid) {  
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Optimized data directory " + parent  
+ " is not owned by the current user. Shared storage cannot protect"
+ " your application from code injection attacks.");
}
} catch (ErrnoException ignored) {
// assume we'll fail with a more contextual error later
}
}
 
mCookie = openDexFile(sourceName, outputName, flags);  
mFileName = sourceName;  
guard.open("close");  
//System.out.println("DEX FILE cookie is " + mCookie);
}

重点的重点在openDexFile,这个函数负责最终的dex文件加载

运行流程

DexClassLoader ——> BaseDexClassLoader ——> DexPathList ——> makeDexElements ——> loadDex ——> DexFile

这个openDexFile函数是一个native函数,在libdvm.so中,看对应的函数表

const DalvikNativeMethod dvm_dalvik_system_DexFile[] = {  
{ "openDexFile", "(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)I", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile },  
{ "openDexFile", "([B)I", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile_bytearray },  
{ "closeDexFile", "(I)V", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_closeDexFile },  
{ "defineClass", "(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/ClassLoader;I)Ljava/lang/Class;", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_defineClass },  
{ "getClassNameList", "(I)[Ljava/lang/String;", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_getClassNameList },  
{ "isDexOptNeeded", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Z", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_isDexOptNeeded },  
{ NULL, NULL, NULL }, 
};

调用表中第一个openDexFile所对应的Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile ,这个就是实际执行的函数,函数参数 "(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)I" 两个字符串一个整型。 而意外的发现在它的下一个位置Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile_bytearray,它的参数 ([B)I 一个byte数组和一个整型,也就是说如果我们直接调用这个函数的话,就可以将字节码以一个byte数组的形式传入。了解到这里,我们的目标就清晰了。

(1)构造一个我们自己的类加载器

(2)通过Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile_bytearray,来加载dex文件的字节码

二、开工实践

下面我们就来尝试实现一下,首先我们需要一个正常的Apk,越简单越好,最好不需要太多资源文件,加载了dex能直接运行,毕竟只是实验一下。上一篇当中的TestApk就很合适。解压出它的classes.dex,放到手机/data/local/tmp文件夹下

然后新建一个Apk,就叫DexFile, 准备一个java类,负责native函数

public class JNITool {  
static {  
System.loadLibrary("JNITool");  
}
 
public static native int loadDex(byte[] dex,long dexlen);  
}

这个loadDex就负责通过我们前面所述的函数加载dex。在JNITool.so,我们要加载libdvm.so并且找到Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile_bytearray函数 所以需要定义JNI_OnLoad函数

JNIEXPORT jint JNI_OnLoad(JavaVM* vm, void* reserved) {  
 
void *ldvm = (void*) dlopen("libdvm.so", RTLD_LAZY);  
dvm_dalvik_system_DexFile = (JNINativeMethod*) dlsym(ldvm, "dvm_dalvik_system_DexFile");  
 
//openDexFile
if(0 == lookup(dvm_dalvik_system_DexFile, "openDexFile", "([B)I",&openDexFile)) {  
openDexFile = NULL;  
LOGI("openDexFile method does not found ");  
}else{
LOGI("openDexFile method found ! HAVE_BIG_ENDIAN");  
}
 
LOGI("ENDIANNESS is %c" ,ENDIANNESS );  
void *venv;  
LOGI("dufresne----->JNI_OnLoad!");  
if ((*vm)->GetEnv(vm, (void**) &venv, JNI_VERSION_1_4) != JNI_OK) {  
LOGI("dufresne--->ERROR: GetEnv failed");  
return -1;  
}
return JNI_VERSION_1_4;  
}

dlopen函数链接libdvm.so,dlsym找到并返回dvmdalviksystemDexFile。dvmdalviksystemDexFile就是我们之前看到的函数表

const DalvikNativeMethod dvm_dalvik_system_DexFile[] = {  
{ "openDexFile", "(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)I", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile },  
{ "openDexFile", "([B)I", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile_bytearray },  
{ "closeDexFile", "(I)V", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_closeDexFile },  
{ "defineClass", "(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/ClassLoader;I)Ljava/lang/Class;", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_defineClass },  
{ "getClassNameList", "(I)[Ljava/lang/String;", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_getClassNameList },  
{ "isDexOptNeeded", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Z", 
Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_isDexOptNeeded },  
{ NULL, NULL, NULL }, 
};

lookup从函数表中寻找我们要的Dalvik_dalvik_system_DexFile_openDexFile_bytearray

int lookup(JNINativeMethod *table, const char *name, const char *sig,  
void (**fnPtrout)(u4 const *, union JValue *)) {  
int i = 0;  
while (table.name != NULL)  
{
LOGI("lookup %d %s" ,i,table.name);  
if ((strcmp(name, table.name) == 0)  
&& (strcmp(sig, table.signature) == 0))
{
*fnPtrout = table.fnPtr;
return 1;  
}
i++;  
}
return 0;  
}

找到之后就用全局的函数指针

void (*openDexFile)(const u4* args, union JValue* pResult);  

来保存这个函数

JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL Java_cn_wjdiankong_dexfiledynamicload_NativeTool_loadDex(JNIEnv* env, jclass jv, jbyteArray dexArray, jlong dexLen)  
{
// header+dex content
u1 * olddata = (u1*)(*env)-> GetByteArrayElements(env,dexArray,NULL);  
char* arr;  
arr = (char*)malloc(16 + dexLen);  
ArrayObject *ao=(ArrayObject*)arr;  
ao->length = dexLen;  
memcpy(arr+16,olddata,dexLen);  
u4 args[] = { (u4) ao };  
union JValue pResult;  
jint result;  
if(openDexFile != NULL) {  
openDexFile(args,&pResult);  
}else{
result = -1;  
}
 
result = (jint) pResult.l;  
LOGI("Java_cn_wjdiankong_dexfiledynamicload_NativeTool_loadDex %d" , result);  
return result;  
}

loadDex函数最终会通过这个函数指针来调用dvm_dalvik_system_DexFile,最终加载dex

那么回到Java层,我们需要定义一个自己的类加载器

public class DynamicDexClassLoder extends DexClassLoader {  
 
private static final String TAG = "dexlog";  
private int cookie;  
private Context mContext;  

构造函数

public DynamicDexClassLoder(Context context, byte[] dexBytes,  
String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent, String oriPath,  
String fakePath) {  
super(oriPath, fakePath, libraryPath, parent);  
setContext(context);  
 
int cookie = JNITool.loadDex(dexBytes, dexBytes.length);  
 
setCookie(cookie);  
 
}

cookie这个变量代表了加载完成后的dex的句柄
然后实现findClass函数

@Override
protected Class<?> findClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException {  
Log.d(TAG, "findClass-" + name);  
Class<?> cls = null;  
String as[] = getClassNameList(cookie);  
Class obj_class = Class.forName(DexFile.class.getName());  
Method method = obj_class.getDeclaredMethod("defineClassNative",  
new Class[]{String.class, ClassLoader.class, int.class});  
method.setAccessible(true);  
for (int z = 0; z < as.length; z++) {  
Log.i(TAG, "classname:"+as[z]);  
if (as[z].equals(name)) {  
cls = (Class) method.invoke(null,  
new Object[]{as[z].replace('.', '/'), mContext.getClassLoader(), cookie});  
} else {
//加载其他类
method.invoke(null,  
new Object[]{as[z].replace('.', '/'), mContext.getClassLoader(), cookie});  
}
}
 
if (null == cls) {  
cls = super.findClass(name);  
}
 
return cls;  
}

然后在MainActivity中我们就可以通过以下代码,启动TestApk的MainActivity

DynamicDexClassLoder dLoader = new DynamicDexClassLoder(  
getApplicationContext(),  
dexContent,  
null,  
clzLoader,  
getPackageResourcePath(),getDir(".dex", MODE_PRIVATE).getAbsolutePath()  
);
Class clazz = dLoader.findClass("com.example.testapk.MainActivity");  
Intent intent = new Intent(this, clazz);  
startActivity(intent);  

三、小结

以上的代码在Android5.0以下的Android系统上可以正确执行(少数真机可能会出问题),我测试的时候在原生的Android4.4上成功。至于Android5.0?不好意思,从Android5.0开始,谷歌已经放弃了Dalvik虚拟机,转而支持ART,没有了libdvm,所以。。。。之后我会考虑研究一下怎么在ART虚拟机中实现。

这种不落地的加载方式是现在加壳方式的一部分。现在的加壳方法往往是多种方法捏合在一起的(还有那种丧心病狂的VMP),大家可以试试将上篇的方法和这篇结合起来,对一个加密的dex,解密后不落地加载,之后再修复dex中的错误指令。之后我也会介绍越来越多的加壳、抗反编译方法,都可以尝试结合在一起。

原文地址:http://bbs.ichunqiu.com/thread-12734-1-1.html?from=paper